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MACRO ECONOMICS

GUESS PAPERS ARE AVAILABLE FOR MA-ECONOMICS EXTERNAL KU STUDENTS.

Macroeconomics deals not with individual quantities as such but wit aggregate of these quantities, not with individual incomes but with the national income, not with the individual prices but with the price level, not with the individual outputs but with the national outputs. Main issues in macro economics The main issues which are addressed in macroeconomics are in brief as under: It Helps In Understanding The Determination Of Income And Employment Late J.M Keynes laid great stress on macroeconomic analysis. He, in his revolutionary book, “general theory, employment interest and money” brought drastic changes in economic thinking. He explained the forces or factors which determine the level of aggregate employment and output in the economy. Determination Of General Level Of Prices Macroeconomics analysis answers question as to how the general price level is determined and what is the importance of various factors which influence general price level

Economic Growth The macroeconomics models help us to formulate economic polices for achieving long run economic growth with stability. The new developed growth theories explained the causes of poverty in under developed countries and suggest remedies to overcome Macroeconomics And Business Cycles
It is in terms of macroeconomics that causes of fluctuation I the national income or analyzed. It has also been possible now to formulate policies for controlling business cycles i.e. inflation and deflation

International Trade
Another important subject of macroeconomics is to analyze the various aspects of international trade in goods, services and balance of payments problems, the effect of exchange rates on balance of payment etc. Income Shares From The National Income Mr. M. Kalecki and Nicholas Kelder, by making the departure from Ricarde theory, have presented a macro theory of distribution of income. According t these economists, the relative shares of wages and profits depend upon the ratio of investment to national income.
Unemployment
Another macroeconomics issue is to explain the causes of unemployment in the economy. Stagflation is another important issue of modern economics. The Keynesian and post Keynesian economists are putting lot of efforts in explaining the causes cyclical unemployment and high unemployment coupled wit inflation and suggesting remedies to counteract them. Macroeconomics Polices Fiscal and monetary policies affect the performance of the economy. These two major types of macroeconomic policies are central in the macroeconomic analysis of the economy.

Global Economic System
In macroeconomic analysis, it is emphasized that a nation’s economy is a part of global economic system. A good or weak performance of a nation’s economy can affect the performance of the world economy as awhole.

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MA-economics Karachi University syllabus

MA-ECONOMICS
FOR EXTERNAL CANDIDATES
PREVIOUS & FINAL
MICRO ECONOMICS
MACRO ECONOMICS
ADVANCED STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS


MA-ECONOMICS
FOR EXTERNAL CANDIDATES
PREVIOUS & FINAL
MICRO ECONOMICS
MACRO ECONOMICS
ADVANCED STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS
GUESS PAPERS ARE
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M.A. (Previous) and M.A. (Final) Examination
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SCHEME OF STUDIES

M.A. (Previous)

1. The examination for degree of Master s of Arts shall be taken in two parts; (1)
Previous examination and (2) (Final) Examination, each for One year’s
dur ation. Students passing the B.A. Honors ( Thr ee years course) Examination
will be eligible to take the M.A. Final Examination after on year’s study
without being required to pass the M.A. Previous Examination.
2. The Previous Examination shall consist of five papers, paper I_IV ar e
compulsory and one optional from paper V. Each paper shall be of 100 marks
and …

DEFINITIONS OF ECONOMICS

In General way, economics is a social science which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. There are a large number of economist give their different definitions. Some say that there is no requirement of definition of economics this is because economics growing continuously. But most of the economists agree with the view that defining economics is must. On the basis of these economist, the definition of economics is divided into four parts such as: Wealth definition given by “ADAM SMITH”Welfare definition given by” MARSHALL”Scarcity definition given by “ROBBINS”Growth-oriented definition given by “SAMUELSON” These definitions of various economists are explained with the help of features, merits and demerits as given under: Wealth Definition by Adam SmithAdam Smith was an important Scottish political philosopher and economist whose famous work Wealth of Nations (1776) set the tone for work on politics and economics for many people even through tod…